## Time Travel is Knocking on our Door

INTRODUCTION

Time travel could have been discovered about seventy years ago, and in view of the so-called “Philadelphia Experiment”, that may well have happened. The discovery of time travel in the public domain is now imminent. This paper will define the laws which govern time, time travel and communication in time, and how it impacts on our quality of life by enlarging our options. However, time travel also presents us with challenges. Not everything that time travel makes possible is necessarily desirable. In this respect it can be regarded as a model for ET contact which presents us with similar challenges.

POLARITY IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE

An understanding of “polarity” as it is found in physics will be useful in understanding the concepts on which this paper is founded, and hence the nature of time as here defined. In physics, some properties possess both magnitude and direction, while others possess only magnitude. The former are called “vectors” and the latter “scalars”. “Polar” properties are like vectors but more inclusive. All vectors are polar and all other properties which have at least two opposed signs or directions are also polar. Thus, electricity is polar because we have positive and negative charge, and these are opposites of each other.

In physics there are around a dozen fundamental properties in terms of which all other properties can be understood. They are, as it were, the alphabet of the subject. Some are listed in Table 1 in two columns, one for polar properties and one for the non-polar properties.

Polar | Non-Polar |

Motion | Inertia or Mass |

Rotation |
Energy |

Electricity | Gravity |

Magnetism |
Time |

Matter and Antimatter |
Force |

Light (interference) |

Table 1. The fundamental properties of Physics grouped according to Polarity.

Polar properties can be created, intensified and cancelled out at will, and they are the basis of numerous powerful technologies. Our skeletal and muscular systems exploit motion, force and rotation, and comprise the greater part of our body weight. On the other hand, our technologies are far more restricted in the areas of the non polar properties. Indeed we use technology not so much to exploit but to overcome these properties when they obstruct our way. To anyone familiar with the behaviour of UFOs, it will be apparent that these objects seem to excel most strikingly in just the domain of the non polar properties. We will show how these properties can also be made polar, and explore some of the new vistas opened up by this.

WHAT THE LAWS OF NATURE DO

Although Physics has become a complex and subtle as well as confusing science, it also possesses certain simplicities. The laws of physics are generally presented in a mathematical form. This is a convenient, exact and fast way of making a statement about some natural process. An experienced physicist can look at such a mathematical statement and “see” how the various properties join together to create the result described. When this interaction is not so apparent, graphs are used to show pictorially what is happening. Surprisingly, all the laws of physics are of two types only.

One type of law defines how elements of a particular property accumulate, for example how the electric influence of many billions of individual electrons produces a combined electric influence in a lightning strike or a TV picture tube. This type of law uses the “+” (addition) operator.

The other type of law defines how two or more properties interact to create a new property not visible in any of the generating properties when viewed alone. Thus electric charge and motion create magnetism and electric charge and acceleration create electromagnetic radiation like radio or light. This type of law uses the “x” (multiply) operator.

This paper will make extensive use of graphs in displaying the meaning of natural laws, and will quote their mathematical form as well. On graphs, polarity is blatantly visible, and an example will be used to illustrate this. Figure 1 shows the way in which the force between two electric charges changes with their separation. The equation is also given. The force is scaled vertically (the vertical axis) and the separation of the charges is scaled horizontally (the horizontal axis). When the charges are of opposite polarity the force is attractive (the upper graph), and when the charges are both of the same kind, the force is repulsive (lower graph).

Where the horizontal and vertical scales cross the scales reverse. Thus if we descend on the vertical (force) scale, attraction becomes repulsion as we cross the horizontal scale. The horizontal scale shows the distance between the charges, and this measurement has no polarity. Because of this, no graphs are plotted on the right side of the vertical axis. If such graphs were meaningful, then “separation” would be polar and there would be something which is the opposite of “separation”.

The place where the scales of a graph cross is called the “origin” and the scales are called “axes”. The origin is a vital part of any graph depicting the action of any natural law, because if a graph plots on both sides of an axis, the property which crosses that axis is polar.

A NEW HYPOTHESIS – ANTIENERGY

In 1905 Albert Einstein published his “Theory of Special Relativity”. He called his theory “special” because it looked at a special case – what happens when gravity is not present. His “Theory of General Relativity” which included gravity was published in 1916. One of the claims of Special Relativity was that the mass of any object must increase as its speed is increased. Until then the mass of any object was not believed to change simply by virtue of its speed. In Relativity, mass was “relative” to speed, but the main meaning of “relativity” had to do with the question of whether there was a non moving frame of reference.

The equation defining the mass/speed relationship was:

m/M = 1/(1 – v.v/(c.c))^.5

This equation may be graphed as shown in Figure 2. The pronumerals have the following meanings: “m” is the mass of any object in motion and “M” is its mass when stationary, “v” is the speed of the object and “c” is the speed of light. In Figure 2 the vertical axis is labelled “m/M” and scales the ratio of moving mass to stationary mass. The horizontal axis scales the ratio “v/c”, the speed of the object to the speed of light. The graph begins at the vertical axis when m/M equals 1, and at this point v/c equals zero because v is zero, i.e. the object is not moving. The graph proceeds horizontally to the right at first but eventually it curves upwards becoming ever steeper. It never arrives at v/c equalling 1 (the speed of light). Near the speed of light, all attempts to make the object move faster just increase its mass instead.

Note that the graph as shown does not cross any axis. If it did then the property crossing the axis with the graph would have polarity. Einstein did not assign polarity to either m/M or v/c.

The above equation can however be rendered in a different form. It is the same equation, but it graphs differently, in fact as a circle. Now a circle crosses both axes and this version of Einstein’s equation is highly suggestive of polarity for both of the properties which are being scaled.

The new form of the above equation is:

(M/m)^2 + (v/c)^2 = 1

This equation is graphed as a quadrant of a circle in Figure 3 and as a full circle in Figure 4. Although it looks different, Figure 3 tells us exactly the same things as Figure 2 does. The difference in the shape of the graph is due to the different ways in which the vertical axis is scaled in the two graphs, where m/M in Figure 2 becomes M/m in Figure 3. We can speculate that in 1905 Einstein wanted to emphasize that the speed of light was a barrier which we could not overcome so he used Figure 2 which underscores this point. Had he used the equation of Figure 3, the question of polarity would have immediately suggested itself.

At that time, Einstein had no basis for seeing polarity in m/M or v/c. However in the 1930’s antimatter was discovered. This meant that matter had polarity, because antimatter is the exact opposite of matter. Now matter is associated with the vertical axis of Figures 2 and 3 (m and M measure matter plus energy in the case of m and matter only in the case of M). Thus, in the 1930’s scientists had a sound reason for extending the vertical axis of Figure 2 or 3 below the origin (the horizontal axis). In the case of Figure 3 they would have drawn a semicircle with its left half missing, and they would have said that the upper quadrant tells us how matter behaves while the lower quadrant tells us how antimatter behaves.

To make the complete circle of Figure 4 physically meaningful, we have to assign polarity to the horizontal, v/c axis. This is the speed axis and contains the properties of distance or space and time. It is difficult to imagine polarity for space but easy to do this for time. For decades, perhaps millennia scientists and philosophers have wondered why time has a direction and why we are experiencing this and not the opposite direction to the flow of time. Merlin the magician of the Camelot era was said to progress backwards in time, so the idea clearly has a long pedigree. They have noted that the equations of natural processes work just as well if time went backwards.

We therefore assign “reverse time” to the left half of the horizontal axis. With this meaning, Figure 4 now tells us what matter does in forward time and reverse time, and what antimatter does in forward and reverse time. It confirms what we already know, that both matter and antimatter can exist in forward time, and tells us that both matter and antimatter can exist in reverse time.

In polarizing time, we have polarized all the properties which previously had no polarity. Matter in reverse time has the opposite inertia to matter in forward time. The same can be said of energy and gravity. We can see here the potential for powerful new technologies.

But what makes time go backwards??? We measure time by monitoring change. In making clocks we find a process which repeats in exactly the same way endlessly, and count the number of repetitions. If nothing changed, we could not measure nor experience time. Change requires motion. No motion, no change. Motion requires energy. No energy, no motion. We postulate here the existence of antienergy which makes time go backwards.

In the light of this postulate, the circle of Figure 4 is interpreted as follows: The first quadrant relates to matter and energy, the second quadrant to matter and antienergy, the third quadrant to antimatter and antienergy, and the fourth quadrant to antimatter and energy. The circle is complete and unbroken. We interpret this to mean that it is possible to “navigate” the circle by moving from one quadrant to another. We already know how to navigate from the first to the fourth quadrant.

Starting at a point near “A” on Figure 4, which is matter almost at rest, we move towards “E” in the first quadrant. This is achieved by increasing the speed of the object, for example an electron in a TV picture tube. Continuing on from E towards C we now transfer our electron into an atom smashing machine which can speed the electron up to almost the speed of light. Here the mass of the electron is thousands or even millions of times its original mass at rest, but still it is not yet up to the speed of light. The extra mass is due to the energy we have imparted to the electron.

We now collide our electron with some other particle, say the nucleus of an atom of lead which is about 40,000 times more massive than an electron at rest. The collision liberates the electron’s energy, and the powerful electric field of the lead nucleus condenses this energy into pairs of electrons and antielectrons or other types of particles and antiparticles. The antielectrons represent matter in the fourth quadrant, and we have crossed the v/c axis at C.

Since we are focused here on the nature of time, consider the points “A”, “B”, “C” and “D” of Figure 4. At “C”, time has stopped as postulated by another equation of Special Relativity. Our electron, if it carried a clock , would barely count a second in one of our days since it is not yet at the speed of light. Point “D” corresponds to “C” and the time equation of Special Relativity applies here as soon as we polarize the v/c axis.

Points “A” and “B” are different. Time stops here because there is no energy to make something happen. This was regarded as a trivial notion because we can not stop everything from happening. Things happen inside and between atoms which we can not stop, so time just never stands still. A great deal of scientific experimentation is done with atoms and molecules very close to the absolute zero of temperature, which is our attempt to approach point “A” on the circle. Scientists try to extract this energy with heat pumps. This method needs something colder even than the temperature we are trying to achieve.

Once antienergy is recognized, another way of approaching point “A” becomes possible. We do not need to pump energy out, we simply push antienergy in (which is much easier), and the two cancel each other out. When we do this, time has stopped at point A. If we keep pumping in more antienergy, then the arrow of time reverses and we have crossed the M/m axis at “A”.

CONSERVATION LAWS AND REVERSE TIME

There are a number of laws in Physics which relate to the “conservation” of something. These laws are the basis of the equations of physical laws. Every equation contains the statement “=” and this statement can only be made by invoking some conservation principle. Isaac Newton introduced the law of the conservation of momentum according to which, only the action of forces over time could change the momentum (mass x velocity) of any moving body. Soon after came the laws of the conservation of matter and energy. With Special Relativity these were combined into a single law of the conservation of matter + energy.

All these conservation laws state that some property is conserved over time. Now reverse time polarizes any property which is conserved in Nature. Thus two equal masses moving together but in opposite time streams have equal but opposite momentum and their combined momentum is zero. By “moving together ” we mean here that if the object in reverse time were to enter forward time at any point it would be in the same relative position to the moving object in forward time in each successive manifestation. This means that the object visible in forward time can change its apparent momentum without the action of external forces so long as the combined momentum of the two objects remains the same. By the same logic, an object at points “A” or “B” on the circle have no inertia because they are “out of time”.

The law of the conservation of energy asserts that energy can neither be created or destroyed. However if equal amounts of energy and antienergy are created, this law is till satisfied. Similarly for the law of the conservation of matter. The nature of matter is such that matter and antimatter are created together. If equal quantities of matter/antimatter are created in both forward and reverse time, then this law too is satisfied. We have to remember what is normally taken for granted, that all conservation is “in time”.

Thus if we wanted to move a certain amount of matter into reverse time, an equal amount of matter would have to be brought into forward time to maintain conservation. Discussions about the creation of the “visible” universe will need to explore the extension of conservation laws into reverse time, and determine what can and can not happen, and how. For us right now it is clear that there must exist four universes like ours, corresponding to the four quadrants of the circle of Figure 4, and we are literally “seeing” only the tip of the iceberg. The “four corners of the world” can well be understood as these four universes.

OTHER “CIRCLES”

Figure 4 graphs a single circle. It relates to our and three other universes of which we can expect to see two. These four universes have very much in common, including the same basic rate of time. Why does time proceed at the rate we experience? To be sure we can slow time by moving fast, but the same basic “resting rate” applies all around. Can there be different rates of time? It so happens that the equation for Figure 4 can be changed by introducing a “frequency” term “f” designating the rate of time:

(f.M/m)^2 + (f.v/c)^2 = f^2

This equation will graph as a series of concentric circles as shown in Figure 5. Each circle represents a different value of “f”. It suggests that there may exist other systems of universes for which the basic rate of time can be faster or slower, which are similar to ours since they also graph as circles, but are almost certainly comprised of different kinds of matter and energy. Note that in Figure 5, all the circles have the origin of the graph as their centre. This is doubtless telling us something. Figure 5 suggests that some things which humans experience like “mind” “spirit” etc. may be the substance of these other universes whose laws may be similar to but not identical with physical laws.

COMMUNICATION IN TIME

Reverse time can be exploited in communication, and this may well be the easiest technology for us to develop. Figure 6 depicts a situation where two planets one light year apart communicate using radio. A radio message sent out by one planet takes a year to arrive at the other planet. The response to this message takes a further year to arrive at the first planet. Clearly the communication delays are very significant. Since cosmic distances can be thousands and even billions of light years, radio communication clearly has its problems.

“Space-time” diagrams allow us to visualize the communication process of Figure 6. In Figure 7 we have two horizontal timelines, one for each planet. On these timelines forward time proceeds to the right and reverse time to the left. The distance between these time lines represents the actual distance between the planets. The timelines are scaled in years beginning at 2002, January 1st. “A” and “B” represent the place on the timeline of each planet when “A” sends its message. The message proceeds through space and arrives at “B” when it is January 1st 2003 at “A”. “B” responds quickly and sends a reply within minutes. The response arrives on January 1st, 2004.

Figure 8 depicts the course of events if at least planet “B” had access to antienergy, in this case antiradio energy. On receiving the message , “B” sends the reply on antiradio. The response moves in reverse time and arrives at “A” shortly after the initial message was sent out. Now the delay associated with separation in space is gone. This is instant communication. Even though the individual messages spend a year in traversing the space between the planets, reverse time allows this time lapse to be cancelled out. Clearly this is the method of choice in cosmic communication.

Figure 8 can also be used to explain communication in time. Suppose Planet “A” sent “B” a message on January 1st 2004 on antiradio. It would arrive at “B” on January 1st 2003. If “B” then forwarded this message to “A” on antiradio, it would arrive at “A” on January 1st 2002. In this way the future “A” can communicate with the “A” in its past. This is communication in time.

It is obvious that ET civilizations who are space travellers will want to establish a network of electromagnetic relay stations (optical or radio or both) throughout space which allows instant communication throughout the galaxy and beyond. Daniel Fry’s ET contact makes a point of describing such a system of communication in “The White Sands Incident” . When our SETI program starts to operate on antioptic and antiradio communication, they might finally be able to tap into this cosmic network.

SPACE TRAVEL

A space ship utilizing reverse time comprises three parts as shown in Figure 9. One part is matter in forward time. An equal part is matter in reverse time. A third part is matter in zero time (at point “A” on Figure 4). Such a vehicle has no inertia and it can not accumulate kinetic energy, no matter how fast it may seem to be moving. The amount of matter in zero time can be increased and decreased at will as long as equal amounts are added to or taken from the parts in forward and reverse time.