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Time as a basis for a Multidimensional Physical Universe

Author : Martin Gottschall, PhD ©
 

INTRODUCTION

This article is directed at the interested reader who may not be a trained scientist or engineer. The UFO phenomenon has laboured for decades under the burden that we do not understand it. It may be many decades yet before we do, but in the meantime we can at least take the position that such an understanding is possible. Once we do this we can embark on the kind of study of UFOs and their occupants which should have been done half a century ago. Without this acceptance we seem to be perpetually circling the issues but never coming to grips with them.

In like manner, we are confronted by UFO technology which is largely incomprehensible to us, and this too has placed us into a kind of paralysis. Consider just one mundane aspect: For half a decade we have known that ETs have been coming to our world, and been told by them that there is much space traffic in our galaxy. Ours is the only green planet for at least a few light years, and we could have long ago exploited this fact in establishing trade based on our incredibly diverse ecosystem. Instead, we have been huddling in denial and certain aliens seem to be just coming and taking whatever they want, leaving us to clean up the mess they leave behind. Is it not high time we acted more assertively and recognised the cosmic value of our ecosystem?

The longer we wrestle with the inexplicable aspects of the UFO phenomenon, the more we realise that in order to make progress we need intellectual tools not presently part of the human world view, be it scientific, philosophical or religious. We propose here that an extended understanding of the nature of time will go at least part of the mental distance we have to travel in order to attain a workable understanding of the UFO phenomenon. Such a viewpoint is developed here.
 

SCIENCE AND THE NATURE OF TIME

For almost a century there has lain just below the surface of accepted physical ideas, a view on the nature of time which points to the possible existence of a few, or perhaps many, distinct layers of physical reality capable of existing in the same space. Some of these possibilities will be explored in this article.

In 1905 Albert Einstein proposed a Theory of Special Relativity. In it he extended discoveries which had already been made about electromagnetism to the physical universe in general. That all of physical matter should behave just like electric charges strongly suggests that all matter may be essentially electromagnetic. Scientists were not willing to accept such a proposition then, and due largely to the present state of subatomic physics, are not willing to do so at this time either.

During the remainder of his life, Einstein and others strove to bring electromagnetic and the “mechanical” physics under one umbrella by devising a unified theory. This has not yet been done, but is now more important than ever, since we need to be able to manipulate gravity, time and space, to develop better means of space travel.

Scientific discovery is like following a pathway with sharp changes in direction. The process which served Einstein and his colleagues so well in developing and validating the Special and General Theories of Relativity failed them repeatedly when they pursued a unified theory. The possible lesson in this experience is that to make the next necessary discovery requires a radical change of direction. It is still the same path, and there is no gap in it, but it takes a new direction, and to follow it we need new ideas or concepts. The notion of multiple dimensions determined by time might just be or point to the new ideas we are presently lacking.
 

SPECIAL RELATIVITY

The new element which this theory brought to science was that when we observe an object which we perceive to be moving, the measurements we can make of that object will vary according to the observed speed of that object. Thus, the moving object is more massive than the same object observed at rest, its rate of activity is slowed and all its measurements in the direction of motion are shortened. These changes apply regardless of the direction in which the object is moving, and if we change our own speed and then repeat our measurements, the exact same equations describe our new observations. Since only relative speed seemed to matter, these theories were called “relativity” theories.

The changes in our measurements of mass, the rate of time and longitudinal length are expressed most conveniently as ratios with their values at rest. We will use capitals to designate the rest values, and lower case letters to designate values when in motion. In these equations m will be mass, t time, x length, v speed and c the speed of light. A particular operation which appears repeatedly is represented here by the letter “b”:

b = square root ( 1 – v.v / (c.c) )

and the various equations then become:

M/m = b x/X = b T/t = b
 

THE CIRCLE OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY

Our purpose here is not so much to explain relativity, as to draw new inferences from it. To do this we will “transform” these equations, which means to change the way they look but without changing what they calculate. The transformed equations become the equations of circles: 2 2 (M/m) + (v/c) = 1 2 2 (x/X) + (v/c) = 1 2 2 (T/t) + (v/c) = 1

What makes the circular representation of these equations so interesting is that only one quarter of a circle is needed to represent what Einstein wanted to convey, and this immediately raises questions about the possible meaning of the other three quarters of the same circle. One interpretation described here yields us two arrows of time and an entirely new view of physical reality.


Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the quarter circle for the mass of a moving object as a function of its speed, representing the first of the above three equations. Similar diagrams could show the scale of length and the rate of time as a function of speed (the other two equations), the only difference being the labelling of the vertical axis. This is what Einstein actually communicated to his colleagues, except that it was not in the circle format. It was all he needed to convey in order to describe what can happen in our space/time. The complete circle of Figure 2 shows us things we can not observe as well as what we can observe. What might these other things be?

Note on Figure 1 that there is a horizontal and a vertical axis. The horizontal axis is labelled “v/c” which is the ratio: speed of object divided by the speed of light. The presence of the speed of light in these equations and its effect on mass, length and time has been used to justify the notion that nothing can exceed the speed of light. The vertical axis is labelled “M/m” which is the ratio: mass of object at rest divided by its mass in motion. Each point on the arc of Figure 1 represents a combination of m and v, allowing us to read off one of these ratios when we have chosen a particular value for the other. Point “A” represents a body at rest, point “B” a body at the speed of light which can only be a photon or ray of light, and point “C” a body in motion, such as electrons in a TV picture tube. Every possible state of motion and mass that is observable to us, is represented by this arc.


Figure 2

To find meaning for the circle of Figure 2 we have to assign meaning to the left half of the horizontal axis and the bottom half of the vertical axis. These half axes are in some sense the opposite of their other halves, because that is their mathematical meaning. The left horizontal axis is designated -v/c and the lower vertical axis is -M/m. A negative number is the exact opposite of a positive number.

The vertical axis is the easier to interpret. The ratio M/m contains the concepts of energy and matter. A mass M is set in motion by imparting energy to it. Its mass m comprises the original mass M and the mass of all the energy subsequently imparted to it in order to cause its motion. Antimatter has already been discovered. It was not known when Special Relativity was first proposed. We can regard the lower vertical axis as the energy/antimatter axis while the upper axis is the energy/matter axis. This is an acceptable choice in that antimatter is the exact opposite to matter in all respects where polarity applies.
 

REVERSE TIME

We now turn to the horizontal axis, which we can call the space/time axis since speed is defined in terms of space (distance) and time. Our experience of time gives time a direction from past to future. No such polarity seems to be available from our experience of space. We can therefore postulate that the left part of the space/time axis be the space/reverse time axis where the arrow of time is opposite to the one we experience.

This interpretation of the horizontal axis suggests that matter, antimatter and energy can exist at any designated place in forward time as well as in backward time. However since an object in forward time can not be in the same place at the same time as another object in backward time, these two objects can not collide or interact with each other. A separation in time is in a sense equivalent to a separation in space. We summarise this by saying that to an observer in one time stream objects in the other time stream are invisible, and indeed the entire universe in that time stream is invisible. This rule is set aside briefly if an object in forward time is passing through the same (or corresponding) moment in time as another object in reverse time.

There is no reason for thinking that while our time-stream is filled with a universe of stars and galaxies, the other one is empty. Indeed one can propose a cosmology of a similar universe in the reverse time-stream, and the two together comprising a greater universe. Certainly, this greater universe would have a very different cosmology to the half of it which we know, but we will not pursue this matter here.

By way of explanation, reverse time is to be understood as a time-stream which is in all respects like the one which we experience. In reverse time everything is “normal” in that hot objects cool down, and all events evolve from past to future, obeying the same laws that they obey in our time-stream. However, if we could observe the reverse time-stream from ours, things would seem to be happening backwards, like playing a movie film backwards, and at twice the rate of our time.

If an individual were to enter reverse time today, and experience one day of reverse time and then return to our time, he would return one day before he had departed. This event would be experienced by us as follows: A day before the planned departure, this individual would appear from reverse time and coexist with himself for one day. The returning individual would be one day older and would have the experience of one day in reverse time. After one day, the younger of the two would disappear into reverse time, and the older individual would remain in our time. He would be two days older than if he had not made the journey into reverse time. In some science fiction it is speculated that should an object and the same object from another time come together, some drastic event would take place. No such difficulty is anticipated here.
 

REVERSE ENERGY

Note how each axis contains two “dimensions” or qualities, one of which stays the same while the other can reverse. Something similar is also apparent with the circle of Figure 2. Figure 3 is another rendering of Figure 2 in which we try to display the proportions of energy and matter at each place on the circle. Note how energy predominates at the left and right sides of the circle, while matter and antimatter predominate at the upper and lower portions. This information is contained in the circle equations and can be read by anyone familiar with them and the energy/matter equation E=m.c.c which is so frequently displayed.


Figure 3

Consider point B in Figure 3. Just above it we have a little bit of matter and a lot of energy. At B it is all energy, and just below B antimatter starts to appear. The component which is reversing fades away, is completely gone and then its opposite fades in. Although the axes reverse abruptly, the actual transition as displayed by the circle is progressive, and this is built into the relevant equations.

To understand what happens at point B a little better, we note that a ray of light or photon, which is regarded as pure energy is neither matter nor antimatter, since it possesses its own unique properties, but somehow contains both kinds of matter. When a photon of sufficient energy passes close by the nucleus of a heavy atom like lead or uranium, it changes into an electron and an antielectron or positron. This illustrates the principle that matter and antimatter tend to be created together.

For our present purpose, as we go downwards through B the proportion of matter gets less until it eventually disappears altogether at B. At B both matter and antimatter are potential in pure energy or photons. Below B the proportion of antimatter increases staring from zero at B. The situation at B is a kind of balance of the two types of matter, but neither is present.

Now consider point A of Figure 3. At this point we have all matter and zero energy. To the right of A we have a small amount of energy compared to a lot of matter, and to the left an opposite kind of energy increases as we move leftwards. Here too we see a gradual transition. By analogy with the process at B which we understand better because we know about antimatter, we infer that the energy on the left half of the circle is the “anti” of the energy on the right half of the circle and is responsible for the reversal of the arrow of time.

The notion that pure energy can have its anti equivalent is foreign to our present state of science. Since it is in the other time-stream we can not observe it directly, so the present situation is hardly surprising. It is significant in this respect that our understanding of photons is still virtually zero. We know what photons do in great detail and to great precision. What we do not know is why they behave as they do, and how they might reverse some polarities that govern the arrow of time. That the arrow of time should be associated with energy, as our circle seems to suggest is wholly logical. Activity or time is only possible when there is energy present. Without energy nothing can change and no clock can tick.

The notion of particles existing that have zero energy is very foreign to science as we know it, and indeed we do not have to be that severe in our interpretation of A. By analogy with B where matter and antimatter exist in a kind of balance, we can postulate that at A the amounts of energy and anti-energy are exactly equal. Thus the influences driving time in each direction are equally powerful and result in a kind of deadlock which stops time at A.

Light, which is regarded as pure energy is electromagnetic, since all the energy present is either electric or magnetic. When electric current flows along a wire it creates a magnetic field which is viewed as circular lines of force which wrap around the wire as shown in Figure 4(a). Note that for positive current moving away from the observer, the lines of magnetic force are clockwise. The opposite or anticlockwise circles of force for positive charge moving away from the observer would be a reversal of the magnetic effect. This is the way in which an anti-photon might differ from a “normal” photon.
 

THE CIRCLES FOR TIME AND DISTANCE

So far we have considered only the circle of energy/matter versus space/time. The other two equations allow us to draw the circles of space versus space/time and of time versus space/time. It could be argued that these circles are already contained in the first circle so that they are just telling us the same thing in different ways. Notice that x/X and T/t are inverse to each other. This tells us that for a moving object, the shortening of distances and the slowing of clocks that we see from a “stationary” perspective cancel each other so that an observer on the moving object measures the same speeds when he observes us as we do observing him.

It is of particular interest to us that the circle of time versus space/time would show that at the point B on that circle, time has stopped. As one approaches B time slows until it has completely stopped at B and then the rate of time increases again in the same direction as before. Thus we have the strange paradox that if a photon could carry any kind of clock, this clock would show the time of creation of that photon even after billions of years. The important notion here is that time stops for a ray of light and can be slowed for all objects.
 

THE ENERGY QUANTUM

Another discovery which was made at about the same time as Special Relativity, is that energy is given and received in well defined lumps or quanta. The atomic nature of matter had already been discovered. Now it was found that energy had a peculiar kind of atomicity as well, something totally unexpected. This atomicity imposed certain regularities upon the structure of atomic nuclei and the electrons surrounding them, without which they could not continue to exist.

For example, in all atoms negatively charged electrons orbit a positively charged nucleus in a manner similar to planets orbiting suns, only much faster. Under such conditions, the electron would radiate electromagnetic energy at an ever increasing rate until it collided with the nucleus. However, this does not happen. Certain orbits cannot radiate, and the atom’s existence is thus assured. We can postulate that at these points the amounts of energy and anti-energy associated with those electrons are equal, and time stops.

We can go further and postulate that in all particles which have an unlimited time of existence, the energies and anti-energies that comprise them are in balance and its internal time is stopped like that of a photon. This is not at all a trivial matter. As scientists studied the makeup of atoms and the particles of which atoms are made, they repeatedly encountered enormous problems. Take an electron for example. The electric charge of this particle is confined to a very small space and tends to explode outwards under the action of its own electric field. What holds it together? What we propose here is a generalised principle which explains the stability of not only electrons but all the myriad particles known, in terms of a balance of energy and anti-energy.
 

TIME FREQUENCIES

By way of attempting to explain reverse time in a different but equivalent way, we here postulate that all energy possesses some kind of “frequency” which determines the rate of time. There may exist a number of such frequencies, giving us specific rates of time. The frequency that defines our rate of time defines the universe which we can experience. The same frequency but opposite “phase” defines a reverse arrow of time which is represented by the left half of the circles of Figures 2 and 3.

Other circles could define universes or levels of reality having different rates of time, each with its antiphase or reverse time counterpart. This concept reveals to us the possible existence of many realities or levels of existence which coexist in the same space but are differentiated or separated from each other by differences in the rate of time. For two things to interact, they have to be in the same place at the same time. When the times are different even though the place is the same, no interaction is possible, as we well know from direct experience. The equation which defines a particular universe of frequency “f” would then take the form:

2 (f.M/m) + (f.v/c) = f

The circles for the frequencies f1, f2 etc would be as shown in Figure 5.


Figure 4

Figure 5

One of these circles, possibly the innermost one might represent our universe, and the other circles, universes of higher “frequency”. Just as an electron can assume only certain orbits around an atomic nucleus, so there are probably only certain allowed frequencies to Figure 5. The rules which determine these allowed frequencies may well be what determines the quantum nature of our universe.

We need to be open to the possibility that matter at these other frequencies might be different from matter in our universe. By that is meant that at least some of the fundamental particles of matter, and the way they combine to build atoms or whatever might exist at these frequencies, could be different.

Esoteric sources of information make reference to other “frequencies” or realms of existence. Science so far has ignored such information by assuming that it could not be factual. That, however, may be merely an indication of the conceit of scientists, since their own theories and equations can be written in a multi frequency format. When dealing with visitors to our world, we might be dealing with some who have come from other places in what we know as the universe, but they might also be from reverse time or from other frequencies. Furthermore, even if they come from a place we can name, they might make their journey here via reverse time and other frequencies.
 

SOME COMMENTS ON ENERGY

The notion that energy can have its anti counterpart and that energy determines the direction and rate of time, and in fact is the cause of all action or change, represents a fundamental shift in scientific thinking. The current views on time and energy are much simpler. According to this view, we are all proceeding at the same rate of time, and we are all at the same point on the time-line. We experience distant objects as they were in our past because of the finite speed of energy (light). In the current view, energy may manifest in many ways like heat, magnetism etc. but it is always the same thing – energy.

Our new view differs from this current view. Firstly, not all objects are at the same place on the time-line. They can be at different points, proceeding at different rates, and move one way or the other. This new view gives us numerous realities or dimensions or universes in time. Existence is now far more complex than with the current view. Furthermore, all stable particles of matter exist at the zero point of time – point A of the circle where time stands still – and the behaviour of these particles is governed by the energy “atmosphere” surrounding them, which determines the direction and rate of time, as well as the zero point.

Interestingly, in esoteric teaching the perspectives on time and energy are also different from the current scientific one. The Great Masters state that they know the outcome of a course of action at the time that it is initiated – in short that they can be at any two points on the time-line. They also state that they influence or control events by projecting “light rays”.

In “new age” parlance there is constant reference to this or that kind of “energy”. In technology we tend to handle energy in large lumps, but there has been a constant movement towards subdivision. For example, in computers ever smaller amounts of energy are shared amongst ever increasing numbers of circuits – meaning that the lumps of energy are getting smaller. There is now talk of “quantum computers”, which means that these computers will work with the smallest lumps of energy which Nature allows us to use. Living things tend to work at the quantum level naturally, and this is one way they differ from our technology. There is also ample evidence that living things are not restricted to the type of energy we use in our technology, but display evidence for other kinds of energy as well.

One aspect of the notion that there are kinds of energy that create different dimensions of existence relates to UFO’s. Right from the 1950’s when contactees asked ET’s about the measures they took to prevent their advanced technology from falling into dangerous human hands, the ET’s stated that humans had captured UFO’s but found that they could not fly them. The reason given was that the craft were powered by the pilot’s mind power. Although the ET’s did not say it, it stands to reason given the notions on energy presented here, that this power was a different kind of energy than that which drives our machines. These other energies are probably needed to manipulate space, time and gravity in the way that UFO’s do. It is relevant in this context, that UFO literature also contains reference to spacecraft which are more like plants than machines. This may also be related to the need for handling other energies – something living things seem able to do.

The subdivision of energy is one kind of refinement which we are witnessing in our technology. The recognition and utilization of the different kinds or classes of energy that determine the direction and rate of time is something still before us, and this is the perspective which this article promotes.
 

APPLICATIONS

We have noted that relative motion changes the apparent rate of time of a moving body, as postulated by the theory of Special Relativity. We might wonder if changes in the apparent rate of time might be achieved in other ways. Persistent reports of the so-called Philadelphia Experiment suggest that time shifts of the order of at least microseconds were indeed achieved, making the object so affected invisible. From the information available, this was done by means of precisely controlled electric and magnetic vibrations, although no specific details are available in the public domain.

In terms of the ideas presented here, an event like the Philadelphia experiment would require the object of interest to be moved forward in time relative to the rest of the planet. This would require an influence that tends to increase the local time frequency. We need a relatively small effect so that when exerted for perhaps a few minutes a time shift of a microsecond is achieved. To return to our time again we need to place the object into the conditions at point A of Figure 2, for that microsecond, or produce an influence which tends to reduce the time frequency of the object long enough to restore time synchronicity. This kind of time shift may have a tendency to disappear naturally.

The mere fact that Figure 2 is a complete circle where the two directions of time are joined without a break or gap suggests that the one state can flow into the other, once we discover how to make it happen.

UFO occupants have on occasion been described as giving their place of origin as not “visible” from Earth, and of engaging in extensive studies of apparently “empty” space. Admitting that space is not really empty, but just very tenuous, one still wonders why ETs seem to find it so important to study space in particular places. Once it is realised that particular places can be occupied by numerous realities in different times, this preoccupation of ETs makes a lot more sense. If we also entertain the possibility that one time reality might have subtle links with another across which at least information can cross, our ideas on “evolution” become very different.
 

1. Minkowski’s Space/time

One of the inventions associated with the Theory of Relativity is Minkowski’s four dimensional space-time which combines the three directions of space and the arrow of time. With this device it is easy to define which things are with us in time or simultaneous with our experience. In particular, distant objects are observed by us as they were some time ago, sometimes very long ago, if far away. In particular, this device allows us to talk about making things invisible to an observer by shifting them outside his range of simultaneity. This appears to be what the Philadelphia Experiment achieved.


Figure 6. Using the Minkowski diagram to establish visibility and non-visibility.

Figure 6 is a simplified version of Minkovsky’s diagram showing time-lines for observers E, F and G separated in space by the distance between these lines. The points E, F, G and F2 show the observes at the present moment in time. This condition is expressed by the arrowhead at these points. Points on the time-line to the left of the arrowhead are “past” and those to the right are “future”. E sees F as she was at the point F1 and F sees E as he was at E1. F1 and E1 are moments in the past because light takes time to travel the distance between the observers. If, instead of being at F observer F could be at F2, time-shifted from F into the past, E would not be able to see F at all, but F would see E as at E2. However, G, being further away would see time shifted F as at F2 and E as at E2

A central aspect of Minskowski space-time is that for observers in different places, different “times” are simultaneous or observable – again a kind of relativity. Thus, if we could take a nearby space and move all objects in it into our past by even a small fraction of a second, they would disappear to our observation, but would be visible to an observer further away.
 

2. Time Shifts

The author once watched a Philipino healer working on a man. The healer’s hand seemed to create a greyish darkness about six inches in diameter, in which the healer’s hand disappeared into the patient’s body. Sounds emanated as though he was manipulating the man’s internal organs and he eventually withdrew his hand with a spherical object about an inch in size. No incision was made and the “hole” was closed by massaging the skin after the hand was withdrawn. Here it would seem that part of the patient’s tissue was put into a slight time shift in order to gain access to his internal organs without surgery.

Something similar seems to happen when abducting aliens enter a dwelling through walls or ceilings, or take themselves and abductees out in a similar manner. The time shift is probably very small and yet it has numerous important uses, from surgery to mining and to entering into or sensing environments like the core of a planet or a sun.

An interesting aspect in both the work of healers described above, and the procedures reported by abductees, is that in penetrating the body the usual precautions against infection seem not to be taken. In the case of the healer, infectious agents are shifted in time with the associated body tissue. They do not find open access to the interior of the patient’s body, and hence can not enter it. Similar considerations might apply to procedures performed on abductees.
 

3. Slowing Time

A more radical operation is to reverse the arrow of time, by means of which one can travel to the past. However before we do this, we can slow or stop time at point A of the circle. We have noted that it is a polar aspect of energy which seems to determine the direction of time. If the two polarities of energy were charged with equal density in a chosen space, time would stop in that space, creating something equivalent to suspended animation. By stopping time cyclically between periods of forward time, we can achieve an average of a slowing of time.

Suppose for example that an object in space was set in motion at a certain speed, say 10 m/s. If we now created a field about this object such as to halve the rate of time, it would seem to an observer within this field to be moving at 20 m/s. To an observer outside this field of influence, the object would cease to be visible. This change in apparent speed would be achieved without the action of an external force. The disappearing manoeuvre is one which UFOs have been reported to perform.
 

4. Using Reverse Time for Propulsion

In physics there is a principle known as the conservation of momentum according to which, when no external forces act on a body, its total momentum must stay the same. Momentum is calculated by multiplying the mass of the body under consideration by its velocity. Since velocity has direction, momentum also has direction which is that of the object’s velocity. When we consider a system of many objects, the total momentum of that system is obtained by the vector addition of the momenta of all the individual objects comprising it. Vector addition can be illustrated by the following example: If you walk 14 paces North then 14 paces East, you will be 20 paces NE of your starting point. The numbers add up to 28 but because direction matters in this case, the actual effect is a distance of 20 meters and a NE location.

If a moving object were put into reverse time it would disappear from sight. However, if we could see it, it would be moving exactly reverse to its motion prior to the time reversal. This is required by the principle of conservation of momentum. This effect can be utilised for propulsion.

Figure 7(a) shows an object of mass 10kg moving to the right at a speed of 10 m/s. Figure 7(b) shows the same object where a portion of it comprising 4kg has been put into reverse time. We assume for the purpose of this exercise that the object is very strong, and it remains in one piece. The law of conservation of momentum now requires that the whole assembly be moving to the right at a speed of 50m/s. If 6kg of the object were in reverse time, it would be seen to move to the left at 50m/s. Merely by changing the proportion of the object in reverse time, we can change its speed in either direction.


Figure 7. A moving object (a) displays a new velocity
when part of it is in reverse time (b)

The concept that reverse time gives us a way to change speed inertially (meaning without the action of external forces) can be exploited even better by means of the spinning wheel. Figure 8 shows a spinning wheel which has a massive rim. A device, A can place a sector of the rim into reverse time. Note that the part of the rim which enters the device goes into reverse time, and when it later emerges, it enters forward time again. By this means, a part of the rim going in a particular direction is kept in reverse time.


Figure 8. The process of Figure 6 applied to a spinning wheel allows changes in speed in any direction in the plane of the wheel.

By moving the time reversing device A into different positions around the rim, the changes in speed can be given different directions in the plane of rotation of the rim. By changing the amount of rim in reverse time, the speed can be changed as for Figure 7.

It is a matter of record that the manoeuvres reported of UFOs are highly suggestive of inertial motion, meaning that external forces seem not to be involved. It is also a matter of record that in numerous close up descriptions of UFOs a rotating rim or cupola is reported. In the Villas Boas case for example, the witness observed a hemispherical cupola on top of the craft which was spun up to a high speed before the UFO shot away into the sky. These details conform very closely to the kind of action expected of the device of Figure 8.
 

5. Compressing Space

Although we have not explored the circle for distance here, it follows that if there are field procedures for changing the rate of time, there will also be equivalent ones for changing the unit of length or distance. In our previous example where speed was changed by slowing time, we might compress space in the direction of motion instead. The object would still be moving at 10 m/s but since it is now traversing a compressed space, the apparent speed as seen by an outside observer will be greater, although an observer with the object would notice no change. High speeds and rapid accelerations are very characteristic of UFOs. They might move at supersonic speeds and yet not produce the noisy shock wave we expect. If the atmosphere around the object is also in compressed space then no supersonic shocks would be expected.
 

6. Exploiting Inertia

UFO occupants have on more than one occasion said to contactees that a major difference between their and human technology was that while we pit ourselves against the laws of nature such as gravity or inertia, they use these laws. In the context of the above examples for changing speed this is indeed apparent. They actually use the principle of conservation of momentum to make those speed changes happen. In the physics taught in our schools and universities, we are told that in the absence of external forces or fields, motion continues without change. Such motion is called “inertial motion”. These ideas were first proposed by Isaac Newton, and are still current today.

The current scientific ideas on inertial motion, and what it takes to change motion are what makes the behaviour of UFOs so inexplicable to us, and they are also the reason why our scientists think that interstellar travel is just too hard, too slow and too expensive. Although the clues to a “variable” unit of distance and time are part of Special Relativity, the idea that there might exist electromagnetic fields or procedures which can change these units independent of external influences has not been accepted by our scientists so far.

A special case of Figure 7 is when half of the mass of an object is in each time direction. In this case any finite momentum would require an infinite speed for the assembly. Conversely, it would now have no inertia, and the slightest external force could impart an inordinately high velocity. This object would not experience a nett gravitational force either. This notion, so vital to easy space travel clearly needs to be explored in detail, as do various other topics raised in this article, which must be deferred to another time.

While the theme of this article is to explore time, and to begin to understand how the dimension of time makes numerous “realities” or “universes” possible, time and distance are interlinked and need to be explored together. However an expanded view of time which opens our minds to the possibility of hitherto unknown worlds is perhaps most urgent at this “time” and hence the emphasis of this article.
 

7. The Nature of Dark Matter

Astronomers studying the dynamics of galaxies, which are collections of millions or billions of solar systems, have found that the visible matter in them is a tenth or less than the amount of matter needed to explain their continued existence. That is to say, the amount of gravity present is ten or more times that due to the matter which is visible as stars, hence “dark matter”.

The notion of time presented here suggests a “universe” that has far more in it than the universe which we observe, and even though much of this matter is outside our time, our timestream is simultaneous with at least a portion of the matter in other timestreams, meaning that the galaxies we see and study are not only under the influence of suns we can see, but others which we can not see because their passage through simultaneity with us is fleeting.

This can explain part or even all the “missing” or dark matter in the universe.
 

8. Fundamental Particles

Another indication of the immense power of a more developed understanding of time is connected with fundamental particles. Electrons, protons and the numerous other particles that have been discovered in recent decades have revealed new patterns not otherwise known, but they have also, like photons stayed as mysterious as ever. Perhaps all particles and photons possess both arrows of time (which means no arrow at all) insofar as their internal structure is concerned, and it is only in their external activity that an arrow of time is apparent. There are numerous indications in UFO literature that ETs use nuclear energy in ways that seem ridiculously simple and at the same time incomprehensible to us. There might be ways of triggering the time arrow in fundamental particles which causes them to convert to energy.
 

9. Zero Point Energy

In recent decades there has been much speculation about “zero point energy”. This relates to an aspect of the quantum phenomenon known as “uncertainty”. According to this notion, energy and matter can appear in otherwise empty space for a brief moment provided the lack of energy or matter can also appear, so that the two average out to zero over time. The interest here is in finding some way to extract energy permanently. Now a lack of energy can be seen as equivalent to energy in reverse time.

With this in mind we can extend quantum uncertainty. If we pump equal amounts of energy into both directions of time, we do not have to expend energy to do this, and so far as just one arrow of time is concerned, we have “created” energy. This notion also has great cosmological implications. If we have the “big bang” in both arrows of time at the same moment, each of the two big bangs is the creator of the other, and owes its existence to the existence of the other. 

10. Circles in Monuments and Symbology

Perhaps it is no accident that an ancient symbol for the universe is a circle, and that there exist ancient monuments comprising several circles in the manner of Figure 4. Neither perhaps is it coincidental that “crop circles” for all their variety have the circle as one of their fundamental features.

Daniel Fry, in his 1950’s account of ET contact, quoted this individual as speaking of a “circle of natural law” whose radius was the speed of light, which made possible a more advanced understanding of nature, and seems to correspond closely to Figure 2.

The kind of inertial motion displayed by UFOs, the clues in ET communications, the hints inbuilt into numerous ancient monuments, and finally the circle version of the equations of Special Relativity, all point to the same thing: There is something vitally important here for us to discover, and eventually use for the benefit of all
 

SOME COMMENTS ON TIME

The conventionally accepted notion of time may be likened to a one way highway on which all traffic is bunched in one place and moving together. The rest of the highway is completely empty. It is an exceedingly simple notion.

The notion of reverse time has added another lane where traffic goes in the opposite direction. This notion is further developed by allowing vehicles to be at many points on each lane. However, the speed of all vehicles is still the same, except for small temporary deviations. The recognition of multiple rates of time yields a number of these two lane highways, each with its own speed but differing from the others. Whether there are a few, many or an infinity of such highways we can not say at this time.

Clearly, the notion of time presented here is much more complex than the single one-way lane of conventional thinking. Likewise the “universe” associated with the latter notion of time is correspondingly bigger and more complex. Indeed every occupied point on this model represents the equivalent of what we presently call “the universe”.
 

THE BURDEN OF “PROOF”

There is a mental fashion popularised by Carl Sagan amongst others, that the more revolutionary a proposal is, the stronger the proof for it has to be. This rule is frequently applied in a way that assume a factual basis for an accepted position which is really just an opinion or belief, but demands not only a much greater strength of proof for any proposed alternative, but on preconceived terms as well. In effect, this attitude says that an error which is widely held is somehow more acceptable than one which is not. The rational and scientific position should be that we acknowledge that we are likely to be in error anyway, and try always to minimise that error.

In science, and perhaps in life generally, facts tend to remain facts for ever, and our understanding of them tends to change forever. To be sure, we can be more confident about some facts than others. Compare for example the fact that objects tend to fall to the ground and the fact that people have seen UFOs. Likewise, we can be more confident regarding one interpretation of the meaning of a certain body of facts, than another interpretation. For example Newton proposed that light was a stream of particles and much later Huyghens proposed that light was a wave motion. Today scientists regard light as being both. Surely, no one imagines that this will be the last word on the subject, but at each point in history, the proponents of each view were very confident about it.

The “burden of proof” rule described above is not the best way to do science or any other kind of study for that matter. It is time it was replaced by more honest and more transparent rules.
 

SUMMARY

In this article we have developed a more sophisticated view of time based as much as possible on scientific discoveries, and also esoteric ideas which describe other realities in terms of “frequency”; which we regard as meaning different rates of time. It is apparent even from this brief discussion, that the application of these ideas, if real, would go a long way to explaining the UFO phenomenon, and would take us much closer to understanding UFO technology.

This concept of time is much more like that of space. The presently accepted view gives us only one place on the timeline which is “now”. Everything in the past is gone and all future moments have not happened yet. Our concept is that we can occupy many points on the timeline simultaneously, and there are more timelines than just the one which we know. This makes the universe far bigger (in terms of the amount and kind of matter in it), and far more complex than we have so far imagined.

Some of the possibilities of this view of time have been explored briefly here, and this gives us an inkling of what might await us in the future. Anyone who has imagined that we have already discovered almost everything will have to think again, because it is obvious that we are not even in Kindergarten yet.

It will take some time to test these ideas experimentally, and more to find ways to apply them, but one thing which they demonstrate right now is that the concepts which we need, to make sense of the UFO phenomenon, are not likely to be so far beyond our comprehension that progress is impossible. Therefore it becomes us to begin to really tackle the questions and issues which it presents, and to stop procrastinating by being sceptical about what should by now be accepted as fact.
 

CONCLUSION

There exist today many facts which science acknowledges but can not as yet explain, and others which science ignores and makes no genuine attempt to explain, as for example the facts associated with the UFO phenomenon and supernormal behaviour of living things. An expanded notion of time developed from the “circle of relativity” has given us a glimpse of how some of the facts presently incomprehensible to us might be understood and eventually applied.

It has also given us a glimpse into what may be the philosophy, science and religion of the future, in which we will have an understanding of new things that will reshape our thinking and lifestyles. When all this has happened, it will just be another spiral on the path to perfection, with God knows how many others to follow.

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