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A Search for Artificial Gravity

Author: Martin Gottschall, PhD ©
 

Summary

This paper presents a hypothesis about how artificial gravity might be produced, in the form of an equation. A large number of hypotheses are conceivable, and contactee information as well as the Finnish disclosure were used to select one which hopefully had a higher probability of helping us to discover artificial gravity. Contactee statements inferred unequivocally, that certain electromagnetic procedures were capable of producing artificial gravity, and that these procedures most probably involved the acceleration of charges. The Finnish apparatus did indeed involve significant levels of charge acceleration, but a residual effect was deemed possible only if charge mobility was made a controlling property in the gravity equation. The paper presents a relatively simple apparatus using readily available components with which artificial gravity might be demonstrated if the proposed hypothesis is correct.
 

Introduction

An understanding of the physics and technology of UFO’s is essential in our efforts to understand the phenomenon as a whole. Only a small part of the available UFO literature is devoted to this field of study, perhaps because scientists and engineers have tended stay away from this subject.

When we understand how difficult or easy it might be to traverse interstellar and intergalactic space, we can also make some intelligent guesses about the motives which UFO occupants from other solar systems might have for coming to our planet; what they might need and want.

Likewise, if we have a rational basis for accepting the possibility of the existence of other dimensions or levels of physical existence, and the means which might be employed in moving from one to another, we are again in a better position to interpret the behaviour of UFO occupants who might have come here via dimensional travel.

A greater understanding of UFO physics and technology will also give us a better understanding of some of the possibilities which might be part of our future destiny. It might also throw some light on the driving force(s) behind the abduction phenomenon. There is therefore, a “practical” application for the results of this branch of UFO research other than the application of such technology, which might be further away in our future.

This paper addresses only one of the technical issues which the writer considers to be part of the UFO phenomenon – artificial gravity. However it is possible, even likely, that if we make real progress here, what we learn will help us to make progress with some of the other issues as well.
 

Historical Development

The extraordinary nature of UFO technology was recognized by 1947, and very likely decades earlier. The reason why it did not become common knowledge is probably that with the policy of silence pursued by virtually every terrestrial government, those who knew kept quiet, while the majority of the scientific and technical community rejected the entire phenomenon out of hand as ridiculous or impossible as soon as they perceived that it was very difficult or totally impossible to understand UFO physics in terms of ours.

Although the authorities maintained a UFO cover-up, it is inconceivable that they would not have pursued secret research into UFO science and technology. Any progress made which was intended to be brought into the public domain would have been introduced in such a way as to seem to be a natural part of the evolution of terrestrial science and technology. It is also likely that some of “fringe” science like the so-called scalar waves, contains elements of secret research. It is conceivable that scientists involved in secret work might want to see some of this enter the public domain, and have embedded important ideas in a context of science nonsense, hoping that someone would recognize the good part. Such a practice is analogous to disseminating fact as fiction.

As indicated, UFO literature on UFO science and technology is relatively sparse, and is sometimes produced by individuals having only limited qualifications in the relevant fields of science. Thus, Plantier (1) proposed a field theory of UFO propulsion, without defining the nature of the field, or the manner in which it might be produced explicitly enough explain anything other than the survival of UFO occupants during moments of very high acceleration.

Later Cramp (2) proposed another field theory in which the gravitational field envisaged emanates from highly localised, massless centres. Although Cramp discussed the likely effect of such fields on UFO’s and their occupants in some detail, he neglected the interaction of these field centres with each other and other gravitational bodies, most especially the Earth. Had he done so he would have discovered very powerful forces acting on these field centres, tending to separate them, or collapse them or to rotate their axis, as with a compass.

There is emerging a well defined school of thought along the lines of Friedman (3) and Hill (4) which proposes that UFO physics is not really so far removed from our physics, and that we have overrated the strangeness of UFO technology. They argue that with a technology which lies within the boundaries of our science, the exploration of nearby solar systems is feasible, and with near speed of light travel, the passage of time on the spacecraft can be slowed so much that for the travellers at least a journey of many light years can take only months or weeks. They argue, and rightly, that since our galaxy is billions of years old, and a mere hundred thousand light years across, it could have been colonized thousands of times over from any of the solar systems in it, and that life would therefore be widely dispersed throughout it.

The work of Friedman et al is useful for demonstrating that the idea of ET visitations from solar systems from up to say a hundred light years away is really quite reasonable to anyone who needs that persuasion, and it helps us to understand at least some ET visitation. However, in addition to UFO sightings, there is a long record of encounters with UFO occupants which are known as ‘contacts’, during which there was an exchange of information, and the human party may have been taken for a trip in the UFO. Information from this source tends to emphasize the high strangeness of the UFO phenomenon, and its associated technology. For example, one of the claims explicitly made by contactees is that journeys of many light years are made in times that are not only brief to the vehicle occupants, but to non travellers as well.
 

The Finnish Gravity Discovery

In 1996 a British newspaper (5), published an account of the alleged discovery by a group of Finnish scientists of artificial gravity. They were carrying out some routine work on superconductivity when they noticed that air was inexplicably rising above their apparatus which was cryogenic and should have had cooled air falling from it. Further measurements revealed a 2% reduction in the weight of objects directly above the device, which could not be attributed to wind effects, electric, magnetic or electromagnetic forces. Their apparatus is shown in Figure 1.

fig1

Figure 1. The Apparatus Disclosed by the Finnish Researchers. A more detailed discussion of this discovery was published by the author elsewhere (6,7). The scientists gave sufficient information to allow us to form a fairly clear picture of the physical processes which were taking place while this gravitational effect was being observed. A paper based on initial observations was accepted for publication by a recognised British Journal, and this tends to support the impression conveyed by the original newspaper account and similar ones later, that this was a genuine discovery.

The paper was subsequently withdrawn from publication by its main author and the matter seems to have receded from public view amid considerable controversy. Those familiar with the cover-up will be very aware, that the obvious inference – that the entire story was a hoax – is not the only probable explanation.
 

Contactee Sources

To assist us, we will also draw on sources of information which have been with us for almost half a century. In July of 1950, Daniel Fry, an Electronics Engineer, working under contract at White Sands Proving Ground, saw a disk land on the desert at night, conversed with a distant ET and went for a half hour ride to New York and back in the otherwise unoccupied craft. Fry was technically well qualified and intensely interested in things to do with space travel, so it is not surprising that his book (8) contains the most explicit discussions of gravitational propulsion obtained from contactees, as quoted below;

“You are familiar enough with electrodynamics to know that a moving electron creates a magnetic field. The tremendous surge of electrons through the force rings produces a very strong magnetic field. Since the direction and amplitude of flow can be controlled through either ring, and in several paths through a ‘single’ ring, we can produce a field which oscillates in a pattern of precisely controlled modes. In this way we can create magnetic resonance between the two rings, or between the several segments of a single ring.

“As you also know, any magnetic field which is changing in intensity, will create an electric field which, at any given instant is equal in amplitude, opposite in sign, and perpendicular to the magnetic field. If the two fields become mutually resonant, a vector force will be generated. Unless the amplitude and the frequency of the resonance is quite high, the vector field will be very small, and may pass unnoticed. However, the amplitude of the vector field increases at a greater rate than the two fields which generate it and, at high resonance levels, becomes very strong. The vector field, whose direction is perpendicular to each of the other two, creates an effect similar to, and in fact, identical with a gravitational field.”

Williamson (9) is an independent source which gives us similar though less detailed information:

“We do not fly as you think of flying, but we drift or glide on magnetic lines of force. We need no fuel. We operate in a Resonating Electromagnetic Field just like planetary bodies do.” (page 59).

“The Four Great Primary Forces are: Static Magnetic Field; Electro-Static Field; Electro-Magnetic Wave; Resonating Electro-Magnetic Field. Your scientists do not understand the last one mentioned.” (page 83).

We can immediately draw two inferences from these quotations – that some kind of electromagnetic procedure can produce a gravitational field and that the directions of the various elements of this process have to be accounted for accurately if we are going to understand it. In our attempt to extract the fundamental physical process involved here, we will use the methods of vector algebra to ensure that we get our directions right every time.
 

Three Vector Operators

The reader is no doubt familiar with the addition and multiplication of numbers. Many physical properties have both size and direction. For example the location of Sydney in relation to Brisbane is about one thousand km in a Southerly direction. We will only get to Sydney if we travel the required distance in the correct direction. Such properties are said to be vectors. Positions, forces, motion, acceleration, electric displacement, electric and magnetic fields, are all vectors. To deal with these properties precisely, we find it convenient to use the methods of vector algebra.

When two or more different physical properties combine to produce a new effect, then in the equations which describe such processes, these properties are always combined by multiplying them together (division is really multiplication and will not be treated separately). For every effect discovered so far, there is a unique equation defining exactly how the properties causing it must be multiplied together. We therefore expect that a unique equation will also be discovered for artificial gravity.

When a number of separate effects of the same kind combine, the end result of this combination is obtained by an addition process (here too, subtraction is just a special form of addition and will not be considered further), in the equations describing them. We are concerned here with discovering a heretofore unknown combination of known processes to produce a known effect (gravity). These will combine by multiplication (and division) in a unique equation, and we will now define the three types of multiplication of vector algebra.

1. Changing the Size of a Vector but not its Direction

This kind of multiplication is akin to ordinary multiplication of numbers. If we multiplied the distance to Sydney by the number 1.1 we would get 1,100 km. If we move this distance in the direction of Sydney from Brisbane, we might end up in Woollongong. The vector keeps its direction but its size is changed by this operation.

2. The Multiplication of two Vectors which results in a Non-Vector

This operation is usually represented by a dot and is called “scalar” multiplication. Non-vectors are called scalars. Energy, for example is a scalar. If a force F acts on a body while it undergoes a displacement D, the energy e expended is given by:

e = F . D

Here, capital letters represent vectors, and lower case letters represent scalars.

3. The Multiplication of two Vectors which results in another Vector

This operation is represented by a cross and is called vector multiplication. Like force (F), torque or turning effort (T) is also a vector that is directed along the axis of rotation which the torque tends to produce. Spanners are used to tighten and loosen nuts on car wheels and many other devices. The force F applied to the handle of the spanner together with the position (D) of the nut in relation to the handle (the leverage) determine the turning effort actually applied, and this can be calculated with vector multiplication as indicated below:

T = F x D

Not only is T a vector, but its direction is perpendicular to the plane containing F and D.
 

What is the Resonating Electro-Magnetic Field?

In attempting to discover this new field, we will consider individual charged particles only. In any real situation vast numbers of charged particles, usually electrons act, but their combined effect is obtained by addition, which does not created a new effect. We will consider only the interactions which require multiplication. By considering individual charges only, we can most readily understand and describe the effects under consideration.

A charged particle such as an electron is surrounded by an electric displacement field, for which we will use the symbol ED, reserving E for the electric field. The displacement field vector of a charge q at a position R is given by:

ED = q*R/(4*pi*r*r*r) . . . . . . . (1)

Here ‘*’ is ordinary numeric multiplication, r is the length of R and ‘pi’ is the number 3.14156… . This formula tells us that the direction of ED is everywhere the same as R. The formula also tells us how to calculate the strength of ED at any point. ED radiates away from the charge equally in all directions and the intensity of ED varies inversely as the square of r. Like gravity it is recognised as an inverse square field. The electric field E associated with ED has the same direction as ED and is calculated by:

E = k*ED . . . . . . . . . . . (2)

where k represents the electric property of space. These two formulas represent the electrostatic field, and could be combined into one. Since we intend to regard ED as identical with ‘space’ it is convenient to separate ED and E. E is a field of force. Any charge q in a field E experiences a force F according to:

F = q*E . . . . . . . . . . . (3)

When an electric charge moves through the space associated with another charge, a new field called ‘magnetic’ is experienced in the latter space which is taken as our reference point, and we imagine ourselves at rest in it. If the charge moves with velocity V and has a displacement field ED at our point of observation, the magnetic field we measure is calculated by:

H = VxED . . . . . . . . . . . (4)

The magnetic flux density B associated with H is:

B = u*H . . . . . . . . . . . (5)

where u represents the magnetic property of space. The field B is associated with the moving charge, and is moving past our point of observation. A charge q at rest experiences a magnetic force in addition to any electric forces that may be acting, which is calculated by:

F = q*VxB . . . . . . . . . . . (6)

Thus far we have looked at the interaction of two charged bodies. Now we will look at the interaction of a charge with its own field. We have considered moving charges and their associated fields, without considering how that motion came about. Any steady motion is preceded by a period of acceleration. Suppose a charge at rest was struck by an uncharged particle and so set in motion. The particle may be moving, but its surrounding field, which has inertia, is still at rest. The field (both ED and E) acquires a distortion in the direction of the speed change which creates new electic and magnetic fields, which act to bring the field up to speed. There are possibly three effects associated with the acceleration of charges, of which two are known to our science.

One of these was discovered by Faraday, with low values of acceleration of relatively long duration. There arises in the space surrounding the accelerated charge an electric field which acts opposite to the direction of acceleration, and may be calculated with the formula:

E = – u*q*A/r . . . . . . . . . (7)

where A is the acceleration (a vector) and r is the distance from the accelerated charge to the point where E is measured. The electrical transformer is based on this discovery.

The second effect was predicted by Maxwell and discovered by Hertz late last century. During the acceleration a disturbance is being constantly sent out by the accelerating charge into the surrounding space as radiation, as for example radio waves. With this effect there exist in the same space an electric field and a magnetic field each having the same energy intensity. These fields are at right angles to each other, and to the direction of propagation of the radiating energy. The intensity of radiation is not uniform in all directions, and can be calculated with the formula in which c is the speed of light:

I = (q*AxR).(q*AxR)*R/(c*c*c*r*r*r*r*r) . . (8)

Note that the term (AxR) appears twice. In a different rendering of this formula, one of these represents the electrical field, and the other the magnetic field. Our rendering emphasizes the equality of energy density of the two fields, and the fact that they are multiplied together shows that they are combining to produce a new effect.

The third effect is the “Resonating Electromagnetic Field” as given by Williamson and the “Magnetic Resonance” of Fry. Fry speaks of an electric field and a perpendicular magnetic field of equal amplitude (which can only mean equal energy intensity) but of opposite sign (which is interpreted here to mean that the one is energised by the other), which are in “resonance” with each other. When the same fields propagate through space, we do not speak of them as being in resonance with each other. If we followed any portion of this field, it would always have the same intensity (except as the wave spreads in space) and there would also be a constant, perpendicular magnetic field of equal intensity in the same space.
 

Examples of Resonance

“Resonance” is associated with some kind of oscillation. We are particularly interested in electrical oscillations. At “low” frequencies, where the wavelength of the associated electromagnetic radiation is much larger than the size of the oscillating circuit, the two components needed are a coil and a condenser. Magnetic fields are created in and around the coil, and electric fields in the condenser. Since these fields occupy different spaces, and have no particular directional relationship, this type of oscillator does not meet the specification given by Fry, and will not be considered further.

At “high” frequencies, where the size of the oscillator is of the same order as the associated wavelength, or bigger, we can obtain a different kind of resonance. Electromagnetic radiation can not only propagate through space like sunlight, it can also follow a carrier, like a wire. This wave can be reflected so that it propagates back and forth along the wire and create “standing waves”. The word “modes” as used by Fry suggests such standing waves.

When standing waves are created between a pair of closely spaced parallel wires, very little of the associated energy surging back and forth is radiated away into space. If these wires are closed on themselves, forming closed loops or rings, we can also send energy around that loop or ring in one direction only. Instead of a standing wave, we then have a wave which is propagating around the loop or ring, like race cars around a track. Such arrangements are usually called wave guides. We can also send energy around a loop in both directions, and create standing waves.

An early example of standing waves in an open helical coil is the so-called Tesla coil. Tesla worked at frequencies of around 1 MHz, where the wavelength is 300 meters. In his coil, 150 meters of wire would be wound on a cylindrical former in a helical pattern as shown in Figure 2. Oscillation would then be excited in this helix by a few turns of primary winding. The helix oscillator had relatively low losses, and Tesla was able to obtain alternating current voltages of about a million at what was then a high frequency, and perform many unusual experiments.

fig2

Figure 2. The “Tesla Coil”. The type of resonance which seems to fit Fry’s description of “magnetic resonance” is the standing wave created in loops of conductor or portions thereof.
 

A Possible Gravitational Effect

We postulate here, in accordance with the quoted contactee statements, that accelerated charges produce a gravitational field having a certain resemblance to the radiation field. The gravitational field is assumed to have an inverse square character, like the radiation field, and like natural gravitational fields. Like the power of a radiation field, the intensity of the gravitational field is proportional to the square of the acceleration, and does not reverse its direction when the direction of acceleration reverses (when two identical entities are multiplied together, the answer is always positive).

We must also examine the question of whether the accelerated charges must be in phase (all accelerating in the same sense at any instant), or if phase is unimportant. Fry’s wording seems to imply that the charges must move in phase. In plasmas there are many charges moving at very high speeds, colliding with each other, and undergoing very intense accelerations. These are not in phase. If phase did not matter, the gravitational effect of a nuclear fireball (an intense and large plasma) might well be more devastating than the explosion itself. Since no one seems to have noticed a gravitational effect associated with plasmas, we assume that the accelerating charges must be in phase to produce a cumulative gravitational effect.

Radiation from two sources can interfere (cancel out) in some places and reinforce in others. The total energy radiated out is not changed, but the intensity is less in places of interference, and greater where there is reinforcement. We can not say at present, if a similar effect arises with gravitational fields from two sources.

For the past century especially, all kinds of electromagnetic effects have been produced in the public domain, apart from secret research, and a gravitational effect, while claimed by some, has not been verified by the scientific community in general. We assume from this that gravitational effects are produced in a way that is unique, and tends not to arise in ordinary electromagnetic machinery, or to be very small.

We therefore postulate that the acceleration of charges and the value of the charge appear in the gravity equation as q*a*a rather than q*a*q*a, as in equation (8), for radiation. In the case of radiation, a large amount of charge having a small acceleration has the same effect as a small amount of charge having a proportionately larger acceleration. However in the formula:

G = – s*q*(AxR).(AxR)*R/r*r*r*r*r . . . (9)

where G is the gravitational field at a point located from the accelerating charge q by the vector R, A the acceleration, and s is a constant presently unknown, A is much more important than q. A is limited by the mobility of the charge carriers in any conductor, while q is determined by the number of such carriers present. The minus sign indicates attraction towards the charge.

In equation (9), charge and acceleration are not directly interchangeable, as with the radiation formula. While acceleration is multiplied twice, charge only once. Thus, if a given material offered us a million-fold increase in the value of A, we would need a million million times less charge carriers to produce the same effect. The rationale for maximizing the gravitational effect of equation (9) is therefore very different from that used to maximize radiation, and this might explain why we have not yet discovered it. We will consider this in more detail below.
 

Conduction Media for Producing Gravitational Fields

In the transmission of electrical power, and the production of radio waves, the important property is conductivity or lack of resistance. In maximizing the effect of equation (9), the mobility of the charge carriers is the governing property. Thus, the entire logic associated with the production of gravitational waves is different.

In ordinary metals like copper, the electron densities are very high and electrons move with speeds of only about 1 cm/s even at the highest practical currents. In superconductors and semiconductors the speeds can be about a million times faster, although the charge densities in semiconductors are usually more than a million times less. This also means that correspondingly higher values of acceleration are possible with such materials. Consider an alternating current of frequency f in a conductor in which the highest practical speed for the conducting charges is v. The peak acceleration of charges can be calculated with the formula:

a = v*f/(2*pi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (10)

Note that the attainable acceleration increases with frequency, and if we have a maximum practical frequency, then we search for materials offering higher values of v in order to increase a. Superconductors and semiconductors have already been mentioned as contenders. Others are dielectrics and plasmas.

Dielectrics are insulating materials in which the electrical charges present are fixed in the solid, but can be displaced from a normal position. They can also be made to vibrate about this position. If an amplitude of vibration d is practicable, the associated velocity may be calculated as:

v = d*f/(2*pi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (11)

With ordinary dielectrics, we need microwave frequencies to do better than metals, but some modern piezoelectric materials can do several orders better, and give us the advantage that the necessary electrical action might be initiated mechanically, such as by a vigorous blow. Such dielectrics can function as wave guides just as well as metallic conductors, and would do much better in producing a gravitational effect.

Plasmas are electrified gases. In air at sea level, the space between molecules is about ten times their size, and they can move a distance of about a thousand diameters before colliding (called the mean free path, about .1 micrometer). For our purpose of creating large charge accelerations, plasmas give us a high charge mobility, especially if free electrons are available.

In fluorescent tubes the gas (mercury vapour) is at a highly reduced pressure, and the mean free path is about a thousand times greater. Actually, electrons move about 25 mm between “inelastic” collisions, but they undergo some tens of elastic collisions in that distance. For our purpose, the distance between elastic collisions governs. The humble fluorescent tube might therefore be a most useful component in gravity experiments.

In summary, we have assumed a gravity formula of a particular kind which requires high charge mobility, and examined some media of charge conduction with which intense effects of the desired kind might be produced. It is apparent that the kind of apparatus this leads us to is unusual enough to explain why such an effect has not yet been discovered, at least in the public domain.
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Acceleration of Charges in the Finnish Experiment

We have assumed that accelerated charges are involved in the production of gravitational fields. In the Finnish Experiment, a ring with a superconducting coating was made to spin about a vertical axis, and an electric current was then induced by means of stationary coils through which the ring was moving. The flow of current in the superconducting coating was induced in the manner shown in Figure 3.

fig3

Figure 3. Sectional View Showing Induced Ring Supercurrent. There is a centripetal acceleration associated with the spinning motion of the ring. When no current is flowing, the positive and negative charges in the ring undergo exactly the same accelerations, and no effect is noted. If there was any appreciable effect due to pure rotation, it would surely have been noticed by now.

However, with the induced current of Figure 3, there are now effects associated with the moving charges that are absent from the charges fixed in the ring. There are two such effects. The ring is shown having a rectangular cross section. At the corners the charges follow a steep curve as the direction of flow changes. On the flat faces of the ring, the charges are moving to a larger or a smaller radius. This motion has an associated acceleration which is due to motion to places of higher or lower acceleration in part, and to the change in direction of radial motion as the disk turns. The combined effect is known as Coriolis acceleration.

Although charges undergo acceleration, and can therefore be expected to radiate energy, for each element of radiated energy there is an equal and almost exactly opposed radiation from another charge which causes virtually all radiation to be cancelled out or suppressed. Hence the radiating elements are in “resonance” with each other. The coriolis accelerations on opposite sides of the ring are in opposition and so their gravity effect tends to cancel. The accelerations at the four corners also tend to cancel.

To obtain a residual effect with coriolis acceleration we have to assume that the charge mobility on opposite faces of the ring differs significantly, say by a factor of two. By a similar line of argument, we can obtain an uncancelled result with acceleration of charge carriers at the corners. Although different mobility can produce a nett effect, the two coils in which coriolis accelerations arise can still cancel, unless the direction of current in each coil is such that the residual effects from each coil reinforce.

When we consider the conditions under which a residual charge acceleration can arise, it is apparent that these conditions are more likely to be a matter of accident than deliberation. A more uniform superconducting layer, for example would eliminate such a residual effect. It also means that attempts to replicate the results with other apparatus may have failed – unless the role of charge mobility was appreciated.

If we take the charges to have a speed of 100 m/s, and the disk to have a rotating speed of 100 revs/s, and a radius of .1 meter, the Coriolis acceleration is 120,000 m/s/s, and if the corners have a radius of 1 mm, the corner accelerations are about ten million m/s/s. Although only a small fraction of the charge carriers are undergoing corner acceleration, this would be the most prominent cause of a gravitational field, at least two orders greater than the coriolis effect. However, with two coils on opposite ends of the same diameter, the corner effects tend to cancel out. To get a residual effect, the current in one coil would have to be switched off or reduced.

We can therefore conclude that if charge mobility is indeed a governing property in the production of gravitational fields, the Finnish apparatus might well have produced the effect claimed, because it would have been about a million times stronger in their case than with materials of ordinary mobility, like that of metals.
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Experiments to Demonstrate Artificial Gravity

For those who have ready access to superconducting materials, especially those with a high carrier mobility, replicating the Finnish experiment is a practical option. In the absence of additional information about the Finnish apparatus, it seems reasonable to assume the central role of charge mobility, and design the equipment accordingly. If that leads to a null result (ie no detectable gravity effect), then we are back to square one, and need to explore other hypotheses.

Those without ready access to superconductors or semiconductors (which may be as difficult to get), fluorescent discharge tubes and a resonating set-up might be a good starting point. It is noteworthy in this connection, that Tesla did a great deal of work with standing wave systems, and discharges through gases over a wide range of pressures. There are claims that he made advanced discoveries, and of his association with the “Philadelphia Experiment”, which, in the present context, merit careful attention, and may furnish useful clues as to directions for further experimentation.

Figure 4 shows a possible apparatus for detecting a gravity effect. It comprises a flat open loop connected to a high frequency transformer. The two legs of the loop radiate in opposite phase so that their radiation largely cancels out and there is little loss of power by this means. One of the legs is made of copper and has low mobility carriers. The other contains one of more fluorescent tubes, which are high mobility carriers.

fig4

Figure 4. Apparatus for Discovering Gravity. With resonance, opposite accelerations arise in the two members, and the q*a*q*a product of the entire assembly is zero. However, because of the different mobility of charges in the two members, the q*a*a product is many orders higher with the fluorescent tube than with the metal rod. Although these products have anti-phase values in the two members, they can not cancel out because of their great disparity of magnitude, and a residual effect remains.

If this residual effect has a gravitational effect of the kind described in equation (9) then it will be strongest transverse to the loop and zero along its axis. To perform the experiment, we need a source of high frequency power, which can be a considerable challenge in itself. Figure 5 shows a set-up in which the oscillations are produced in the apparatus itself. We have a capacitor C which is being charged by a steady DC current. When the voltage reaches a certain value, the fluorescent tube becomes conducting, and an electric oscillation takes place. After a number of cycles, the oscillation ceases and the capacitor charges up again.

fig5

Figure 5. Arrangement Utilizing Electric Breakdown. We assume that the proposed gravitational effect is present only when the oscillation is in progress. The average effect is therefore much smaller than the instantaneous effect. To improve sensitivity, a test mass is mounted on a spring to give it a frequency of vibration equal to the frequency of discharges. When the discharges begin, the mass should be set in vibration, building up to a steady amplitude. A resonant sensing system can be a hundred times more sensitive than a static one.

It goes without saying that care must be taken to prevent the action of forces other than gravity on the sensing mass. The frequency of the sensing mass is likely to be in the audible range, and hence, a gramophone pick-up can be used to sense its vibration, and ordinary audio equipment can be used to amplify the signal obtained.

It is noteworthy, that before the advent of valves and transistors, spark discharge was a common way of creating high frequency electrical oscillations, and that Tesla did a great deal of work on and with this apparatus. The Tesla coil, for example was usually driven by a spark discharge set-up.
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Conclusions

We have examined two sources of information about artificial gravity which are in the public domain, and postulated a gravitational effect in which the mobility of charge carriers is a governing parameter. Since we are looking for a well defined effect, we were able to assess the Finnish experiment, and conclude that it might have produced artificial gravity at a detectable level. We were also able to propose other experimental set-up’s which could be expected to yield measurable fields. It remains for us to perform such experiments and hence discover artificial gravity.

In arriving at our postulated gravitational effect we relied on UFO contactee information, and on the observation that when new physical effects are produced from known ones, the effects which are the cause are associated in the describing equations by multiplication, and where directions are important, by scalar and vector multiplication, as well as arithmetical multiplication. This practice is well established in Science and Engineering as “Dimensional Analysis”.

We have only explored one postulated gravity mechanism. A number of others are also possible, but this number is infinitely smaller than the number of ways in which experimental apparatus might be combined. It is therefore presented as a more rational way of searching for artificial gravity, than arbitrary experimental procedures.

References
1. Aime Michel, “The Truth About Flying Saucers”, Corgi, 1958, pp 208-224.
2. Leonard G. Cramp, PIECE FOR A JIGSAW, Somerton, 1966.
3. Stanton T. Friedman, INTERNATIONAL UFO SYMPOSIUM, Brisbane 1966.
4. Paul R. Hill, UNCONVENTIONAL FLYING OBJECTS, Hampton Roads, 1995.
5. SUNDAY TELEGRAPH (UK), Sept. 1, 1996, page 3.
6. NEXUS Magazine, Mar/Apr 1997, page 47.
7. UFO ENCOUNTER (Qld), Mar/Apr 1997, page 10.
8. Daniel W. Fry, THE WHITE SANDS INCIDENT, Best Books, 1956, page 51; Horus House Press, 1992, page 75.
9. George Hunt Williamson, THE SAUCERS SPEAK, Neville Spearman, 1963.

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